Linking words are extremely
important since they indicate the relationship between ideas. Note that
connectives can be grouped in two different ways. Firstly, they can be
grouped according to meaning. For example but , although
and however all have the same meaning and can all be used to join
the two ideas below:
X The computer manufacturers have agreed
to replace the equipment free of charge.
Y The new computers will not be installed
for at least six months.
However, grammatically but, although,
and however are quite different. Look at the sentences which
are produced when they are used:
1. The computer manufacturers have agreed to
replace the computers free of charge, but the new computers
will not be installed for at least three months.
X, but Y .
But is placed between two main ideas in one sentence.
2. Although the computer manufacturers
have agreed to replace the computers free of charge, the new computers
will not be installed for at least three months.
Although X, Y.
or Y, although X.
Although is placed at the beginning of a support idea (X). There must be a main idea (Y) in the same sentence.
3. The computer manufacturers have agreed to replace the system free of charge. However, the new equipment will not be installed for at least three months.
X. However, Y. The two ideas are placed
in two separate sentences.
However comes at the beginning
of the second sentence and is followed by a comma.
Here you will find rules of how some of the most
usual linking words are used, and some examples:
WORDS EXPRESSING RESULT:
So + adjetive/adverb + that + clause
-He was so tired that he went to bed
-The secretary types so quickly that she always has her work in time.
-The film was so boring that I went out before the end.
-He spoke Russian so well that everyone thought he was Russian.
Such + noun + that + clause
-It`s such a cold day that I will
stay in bed.
-It was such a difficult exam (that) he knew he wouldn´t pass it.
can be left out in informal speech.
So + clause
-Mrs. Deam was sleeping, so she didn`t hear the thief.
-It was late so he decided to take a taxi home.
As a result, consequently, can begin a new sentence.
And, as a result, is used in the middle of a sentence.
Therefore often comes in the middle of a sentence ( it can also come at the beggining or the end )
-His wife left him and, as a result, he
became very depressed.
-I studied a lot, as a result I got an exelLent
-Zamorano trained hard for many years and, as
a result, he became one of the best footbal players in Spain.
-The food was bad, therefore, we didn`t
WORDS EXPRESSING REASON:
Since, as, seeing that + clause often come before the main clause
-Since/Seeing that/As we arrived late, all
the best seats had been taken.
Because + clause usually comes after the main clause
-We couldn´t find a good seat because
all the best ones had been taken.
-The translator came late because her car
Because of, as a result of, owing to and due to are followed by a noun or noun phrase.
-We are unable to go by train because of
the rail strike.
-The Pope couldn`t travel because of the
-Students have learnt a lot due to this
-Many of the deaths of older people are due to heart attacks.
Notice due to
WORDS EXPRESSING PURPOSE:
We can use infinitives to(do) in order (not) to (do), so as (not) to express purpose.
-We came to the countryside to find some peace and quiet.
-I went to the music shop to buy the last Eagles CD.
-Be carefulwhen handling a knife in order not to get injured.
-Handle the flowers carefully in order not to
Notice in order
to, so as to are more informal
So that, in order that + clause ( often with the verbs can, could, might, would in the clause )
-I turned off the radio so that I could
hear my thoughts.
-He chose this University so that /in order
that he could study English.
WORDS EXPRESING CONTRAST:
Although, even if, even though + clause can come before or after the main clause.
-Although/Even if/Even though the car is
old,it is still reliable.
-Although I`m not used to interpret simultaneously,
I did it quite well during my first day of work.
Notice even though
is more informal.
despite, in spite of + a noun or noun phrase or -ing form
-In spite of the noise, the students could
study for their test.
-In spite of/Despite the rain,I went for
despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that + clause
-In spite of the fact that it was snowing,
the festival took place as usual.
however can come at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence.
-Many people think that scientists are abusing
of animals, however, the same people do nothing to stop the problem.
-Buying a house is expensive. It is, however,
a good investment.
Though is more informal and comes at the end of a sentence.
- I´m determined to buy a house this year,I
don´t know Where exactly, though.
- It´s a big decision to make, though.
But, while, whereas are usually placed in the middle of two main clauses expresing contrasting ideas.
-John is very rich but/while/whereas his
friends are extremely poor.
On the one hand and on the other hand can be used at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of two sentenses expresing contrasting ideas.
-On the one hand these computers are expensive.
On the other hand they are exactly what we want.
Notice on the other
hand is often used at the beginning of the second sentence.
WORDS EXPRESSING TIME:
when, while, as and after + clause can come before or after the main clause.
-While/when/as I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident.
Whenever, every time + clause often come before the main clause for added emphasis.
-Whenever/Every time I see John, he´s
driving a different car.
First, then, later, etc. can be used to introduce a chain of events.
-First he closed all the windows,then
he locked the doors. Later he came back to check that everything
was all right.
During, all through and throughtout are followed by a noun or a noun phrase.
-During/All through the concert some people tried to get on the stage.
-During/All through the summer we get a lot of visitors.
-It rained heavily throughout the night.
WORDS EXPRESSING CONDITION:
Even if, as long as and unless + clause can be used before or after the main clause.
-Even if you are born rich, life is
-You can borrow the car as long as
you are careful with it!
-Marriage is a difficult stuff even
if your husband is the best man in the world.
-You can´t come with me unless you
promise to keep quiet.
Whether + clause usually comes after the main clause and is often used in indirect questions with...or not.
-I'm not sure whether Richie Sambora
recorded a long play with Cher or not.
-I don´t know whether you have
met him or not.
certain verbs ( eg discuss ) can be followed by whether but not if.
-They discussed wether they should attend
after preposition and before to infinitives use whether but not if.
-It depends on whether the govrnment takes
-The teachers will decide whether to impose the oral exam
in case + clause usually comes after the main clause.
-Take this umbrella
in case it rains.
-In the building there is a box that says Ain
case of fire, break the glass@.
Notice in case
of + noun ( often used in formal written notices )
WORDS EXPRESSING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR
REINFORCIONG A POINT
Besides, in addition ( to that ) and furthermore can be used at the beginning of the sentence following the first statement made.
-I don´t really want to go out tonight.Besides
there is a good film on TV.
-Mrs.Smith is an intelligent and stimulating teacher, furthermore she takes an interest in the personal well- being of her students.
is less formal, furthermore is more formal.
moreover can be used at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence which gives additional information
-This theory about the origins of the Universe
is new.It is moreover, extremely interesting.
not only ...but also / as well can link two sentences, phrases or words to give additional information.
-The painting is not only valuable but
also a work of art.
-She not only writes novels but she lectures
-The house was not only large but it was also modern.
also are used together when
there is no subject pronoun and verb in the second part of the sentence.
But...also are separated when there is a verb in the second part of
not only can come at the beginning of the first part of a sentence to emphasize what the speaker is saying. In this case, it is necessary to change the order of the subject and verb. In sentences like these the subject pronoun and verb in the second part of the sentence are usually mentioned and but...also are separated
-Not only is the restaurant superb but
it is also expensive.
as well as can be folllowed by a single word, a phrase or ...-ing.
-Pat speaks English fluently as well as German.
-They robbed a bank as well as apost office.
-As well as being sent to prison they were
Too, as well as and not either are informal and usually come at the end of the sentence which gives additional information.
-They like Mexican food. I like mexican food too/as well.
-My father likes to work with young people, I like it Too/ as well.
-They aren´t very generous people. They haven´t
got any friends either.